Knowledge > GMO
 

Genetically Modified Organisms

Agriculturally important plants are often genetically modified by the insertion of DNA material from outside the organism into the plant's DNA sequence, allowing the plant to express novel traits that normally would not appear in nature, such as herbicide or insect resistance. Seed harvested from GMO plants will also contain these modifications.

Current GMO production basically relates to four crops: soybeans, corn, cotton and oilseed rape. GMO crop planting accounted for 26% of the global area planted in 2004 (51%, 12%, 24% and 15% respectively for soybeans, corn, cotton and oilseed rape).

Global trade in these crops and their main derivatives is dominated by GMO origin material (90% of soybean trade, 80% of maize trade, 70% of oilseed rape trade and 45% of cotton seed trade - incl. of co-mingled GMO and non-GMO material). However, whilst most soybeans and their main derivatives used in the European Union come from imports, the vast majority of maize, oilseed rape and cotton seed used is derived from domestic (largely non-GMO) production.

Demand for testing for GMOs comes from the desire to prove the absence of GMOs in products labeled GMO-free, on the one hand, and, on the other, the desire to test for identity preservation and the collect on of royalities for GMO products.

The following list includes the main proteins (which are expressed as a result of the genetic modifications) and their related characteristics and trade names. We offer Lateral Flow and/or ELISA test systems for all of these novel traits.

CP4 EPSPS Protein
The expression of CP4 EPSPS transgenic protein in plants results in Roundup® herbicide resistance. RoundUp® is a broad spectrum herbicides used to control weeds. Corn expressing this trait is marketed as Roundup Ready®

Bt-Cry1F Protein
The expression of Bt-Cry1F transgenic protein in plants results in insect resistance. Corn expressing this trait is marketed as Herculex®

Bt-Cry34Ab1 Protein
The expression of Bt-Cry34Ab1 transgenic protein in plants results in insect resistance. Corn expressing this trait is marketed as Herculex® RootWorm

Bt-Cry9C Protein
The expression of Bt-Cry9C transgenic protein results in European corn borer resistance and phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance. Corn expressing this trait is marketed as StarLink®. Cry9C was reported to have potential allergenicity. Therefore StarLink® corn is banned from the market.

Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac Proteins
The expression of Bt-Cry1Ab transgenic protein results in European corn borer resistance. Corn expressing this trait is available originating from several different events and is marketed under several different trade names, including YieldGard® Corn Borer corn, Bollgard® (BG) cotton, NaturGard™ (E176) corn, Knockout™ (E176) corn, and Bt-Xtra™ corn.

Bt-Cry3Bb1 Protein
The expression of Bt-Cry3Bb1 transgenic protein in plants results in corn rootworm resistance. Corn expressing this trait is marketed as YieldGard® RootWorm.

Bt-Cry3Bb1 and Bt-Cry1Ab Proteins
The expression of Bt-Cry3Bb1 transgenic protein in plants results in corn rootworm resistance. The expression of Bt-Cry1Ab transgenic protein results in European corn borer resistance. Corn expressing both traits (Event MON863 and MON810) is marketed as YieldGard® Plus.

Bt-Cry2Ab Protein
The expression of Bt-Cry2Ab transgenic protein results in resistance to lepidopteran pests including, but not limited to, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, tobacco budworm. Cotton expressing this trait is marketed as Bollgard® II.

PAT Protein
The expression of PAT transgenic protein in plants results in Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium. It is often used as a marker for genetic transformation. Corn, Canola, Cotton, Sugarbeet and Rice expressing this trait are marketed as Liberty-Link™.

Vip3A Protein
The expression of Vip3A transgenic protein in plants results in resistance to lepidopteran pests. Corn and Cotton expressing this trait are marketed as VipTera™ and VipCot™.

PMI Protein
The phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) protein is expressed by a gene derived from E. coli and is often used as a genetic marker in GMO products. This gene is incorporated in corn, wheat and other crops and is marketed under the brand Positech®.