The infographic below will shed some light on these.
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The 8 Sources of GMO Contamination
1. Seed purity
The 100 points of vulnerability during seed production make seed purity critical.
2. Sowing Machinery
GM seeds commingling in the seed drill can lead to contamination during sowing. A thorough cleaning is imperative.
3. Field contamination
Wind- or insect-borne cross pollination can contaminate the field. Isolation distances and buffer zones are key to overcoming this.
4. Harvesting Equipment
Sharing of machinery during harvest increases the possibilities of contamination.
Risk of contamination increases with number of operators in the supply chain.
Elevators are one of the main sources of unintended impurities in supply chains. In the US, segregation costs were projected to be up to $10/t for commodities like corn and soy. (FoEE, 2009)
Switching from GMO to non-GMO milling requires a full facility cleaning followed by a 2 hour flushing. Even then, however, as much as 1% of GMO contamination can be detected.
8. Food & feed processors
Cross-contaminations at this stage occur frequently. GM avoidance requires additional staff training and a reliable and efficient raw material analysis.